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Social network analysis (or SNA) is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organizations, computers, URLs, and other connected information/knowledge entities. The nodes in the network are the people and groups while the links show relationships or flows between the nodes.
Organizational Network Analysis (or ONA) is a special application of SNA for firms and companies that allows you to x-ray your organization and reveal the managerial nervous system that connects everything.

The term “silo” is a metaphor suggesting a similarity between grain silos that segregate one type of grain from another and the segregated parts of an organization.

In an organization suffering from silo syndrome, each department or function interacts primarily within that “silo” rather than with other groups across the organization.

Marketing may develop its own culture and have difficulty interacting with other functions such as sales or engineering. The manifestation of silo syndrome breeds insular thinking, redundancy, and suboptimal decision-making.

  • SILOS & HOW4 Solution

HOW4 answers the following questions:

Where are the silos in my organization?
Who are the dominant employees in each silo?
What collaboration challenges my employees face in light of Silos?
How do my employees suggest to break the silos?


Influence is the power to change or affect someone or something; the power to cause changes without directly forcing them to happen (Merriam-Webster).

Influencers can affect cross-organizational processes and quickly convey messages throughout the organization’s length and breadth with precision. Influencers are usually “Agents of Change” and it is recommended to involve them in Change Management processes

  • INFLUENCERS & HOW4 Solution

HOW4 answers the following questions:

Who are the most influential employees?
Are the influencers also mediators?
Do the influencers tend to collaborate or keep to themselves?
Why do employees want to work with influencers?
Do employees view the influencers as trustworthy? Are there disconnections in the network?

Mediators connect two or more groups of employees. Mediation can be positive or negative – depending on its formation and how the mediator utilize their strategic position.

Liaisons are employees/teams who help organizations or groups to work together and provide information to each other (Merriam-Webster). They usually rise from an organization need.

Bottlenecks are employees/teams that retard or halt free movement and progress (Merriam-Webster). Bottlenecks force information and knowledge to flow through them, usually utilizing their organizational power – formal or informal.

  • MEDIATORS & HOW4 Solution

HOW4 answers the following questions:

Who are the mediator?
Does the mediation affect the entire organization or is just local?
Is the mediator a bottleneck or a liaison?
How do employees propose we bypass bottlenecks?